For bottom-up network fault repair, the network cable must be checked first, followed by the protocol stack. When a user fails, we can easily start from the physical layer, and then continue to repair. When EMI and / or environment-related errors cause problems, you can study habitual problems. For example, I once had a customer. Once, there were problems with his line at 3:00 every day for a few days. The problem disappeared the next morning. After reviewing the trend analysis report, I found that traffic increased at some same time. No matter how the connection in the electronic device moves, the same thing always happens. Tracking the problem is a nightmare for me. The results showed that the sprinklers were always on during those days and the outdoor cables were installed under the foundation of the building without a protective film (also covered by lawn). When the water evaporates, the problem ceases to exist.
If the error occurs either continuously or intermittently, it is a good practice to check the physical layer. The patch cord at the end of the area is a particularly common cause of problems, but other environmental conditions may also cause problems. When moving the wall, the wires previously installed away from the fluorescent lamp bracket may no longer be outside the acceptable range, the new power supply plug-in board may be installed too close, etc. It is worth noting that we can not determine the quality of the line by looking at the connection signal on the switch port. Just like electronic devices, the connection requires certain conditions, but if the signal from the sender to the receiver is descending, then the data packet is useless. Remember the saying "the light is on, but nobody is at home". This is true for copper wires or optical fibers.
If we installed Gigabit Ethernet and installed the cable before adopting the new parameters of channel performance, then we also need to re-verify the new parameters of the cable. We must note that when any physical layer media of the test equipment is operated, this practice is often carried out in the original laboratory environment. The actual installation may have to be changed based on a large number of external factors. If we use the bottom-up method, then we need to check all the physical media, and this step can not be skipped, because we can ping the device or check the connection signal light. On the other hand, if we don't see the connection signal light on-then the problem is obvious.
In this way, we can continue our inspection steps-check the network card diagnosis, switch port statistics, and then to the application. If only one application is no longer working, then we must start checking from above. If several applications are not working or all applications on a workstation are not working, then we must start to check from below. At the same time, remember that sometimes problems will appear in the middle layer, then this rule will be reversed.
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